Insight Chapter 1, a version
Archival Number: A399
Author: Lonergan, B.
Noteworthy items follow:
pt 3, line 6 text (ts 1): ts has `... is the slowly accumulated fruit of a slow and steady ...'
pt 3, line -19 (ts 1): ts has no comma after `philosopher'
pt 3, line -18 (ts 1 ): tx has no comma after `insight'
pt 3, first major section (ts 1-2): The heading is added by hand on page 2. A prior attempt at the same material, without a heading, appears on page 1 of ts. It is crossed out. It reads as follows:
The psychological resonance of the occurrence of an insight appears, with the over-emphasis that aids clarity, in the story of Archimedes running from the bath with the cry, Eureka. He had been set the problem of determining whether a crown, fashioned by a smith of doubtful honesty, contained only gold. He had grasped, suddenly and unexpectedly, what we would name the principles of buoyancy and of specific gravity. Still he did not grasp these principles in some abstract formulation. Rather, he had understood that he would solve his problem by weighing the crown in water.
In the story of Archimedes' discovery, the key-note is delight and joy. I do not suppose that the history of science contains another instance of such dramatic
Though there have been other and greater discoveries, certainly Archimedes
1. With the over-emphasis that aids clarity, the psychological resonance of the occurrence of an insight appears in the story of Archimedes rushing naked from the baths of Syracuse with the cryptic cry, Eureka. A smith of doubtful honesty had fashioned a votive crown for King Hiero. The king set Archimedes the problem of determining whether it had been made of pure gold. Archimedes had hit upon a solution, Weigh the crown in water.
If there have been greater discoveries in the history of science, there is not a more uninhibited expression of the delight and joy that the solution of a problem brings.
pt 3, line -12 (ts 2): ts has no quote marks around Eureka!, just a comma after cry.
pt 4, line 1 (ts 2): ts has `circumstance'
pt 4, line 3 (ts 2): ts has no indication of a footnote at this point.
pt 4, line 6 (ts 2): ts has `...exultation. But it is, I think, merely to miss the point if one argues that Archimedes' behavior is hardly typical of scientists
No doubt, such an outburst of delight is not typical, seicntific behavior But the point I would make ...'
pt 4, line -14 (ts 2): ts has no comma after crying
pt 4, line -6 (ts 3): reverse side of p. 3 has `It is genius precisely because it disregards every established routine, because it originates the routines of the fut
pt 4, line 4 (ts 3): ts has `with varying measures ...' No indication of change.
pt 5, line 10 (ts 3): ts has no comma after circumstances
pt 5, line 13 (ts 3): ts has no comma after water
pt 5, line -22 (ts 3): ts has no comma after insight
pt 5, line -18 (ts 3): ts has question, Why?
pt 5, line -4 (ts 3): ts has `Once more the story ...' No change indicated.
pt 6, line 1 (ts 3): ts has `Because they insights arise with reference to the concrete, geometers use diagrams, mathematicians invent symbols, teachers need blackboards, doctors have to see their patients, trouble-shooters have to symbols, teachers need black-boards, pupils
pt 6, line -16 (ts 4): ts has `... it constitutes the possibility of learning. For in learning a subject there is an initial period of darkness in which one gropes about insecurely and then, as one begins to catch on, there is a subsequent period of increasing light, confidence, interest, absorption. Moreover, this rule holds just in the degree that a subject calls, not for mere memory work, but for a grasp of principles, for the formation of new concepts, the possibility of learning. For we can learn ...'
pt 6, line -6 (ts 4): ts has `... cease to be the mysterious and foggy realms they had seemed; things become for us si ple and obvious we too begin to find them less incredible our teachers' claims that really such matters are, not at all impossible, but simple and obvious as simple and obvious as anything else is, once one has understood. and foggy realms they had seemed. Imperceptibly ...'
pt 7, line 1 (ts 5): This and all subtitles are added by hand in ts.
pt 7, line 8 (ts 5): Ts has crossed out at this point:
Imagine a cart-wheel with its bulky hub, its stout spokes, its solid rim.
Ask a question. Why is it round? More precisely, rule out of consideration such extrinsic grounds of the wheel's roundness
Limit the question. One might explain the roundness of the wheel by appealing to its maker; the wheelwright because the wheelwright proceeded in such and such a fashion, his product had to be of such a kind. Again, one might seek explanation in appealing to the wheelwright's tools or to
pt 7, line 11 (ts 5): ts has `What is wanted is the immanent ground of the roundness of the wheel.' No indication of change.
pt 7, lines 13-14 (ts 5): ts has `... carts, carting, transportation, or wheelwrights, or their tools. It will appeal simply to the wheel.' No indication of change.
pt 7, line 16 (ts 5): ts has `sink'. No indication of change.
pt 7, line -12 (ts 5): ts has at this point `However, if this bringsus close enough to the definition of the circle, it is only a preliminary to our proper objective. What we desire is an insight, not into the circle, but into the act illustated by insight into the circle. Accordingly, a number of observations on
pt 7, line -10 (ts 5): ts has `... of the circle. But our purpose is not to attain insight into the circle But our purpose is to attain ...'
pt 8, line 3 (ts 6): ts has `... so there is conception is the playground ...'
pt 8, line 5 (ts 6): ts has `... never seen nor heard nor felt' No indication of change.
pt 8, line 17 (ts 6): ts has `... could sink into it unequally.' No indication of change.
pt 8, line 19 (ts 6): ts has no comma after magnitude
pt 8, line 21 (ts 6): ts has no comma after place
pt 8, line -5 (ts 6): ts has no comma after circle
pt 9, line -18 (ts 7): ts has a comma after at
pt 9, line -9 (ts 7): ts has no comma after words
pt 9, line -3 (ts 7): ts has comma after wonder
pt 10, line 18 (ts 7): ts has `concepts'
pt 10, line -6 (ts 8): ts has `includes what otherwise would have had to be added as a postulate, the affirmation ...'
pt 10, line -2 (ts 8): ts has `... that all right angles be equal.' No change is indicated.
pt 12, line 16 (ts 9): ts has no comma after angle
pt 12, line -8 (ts 9): ts has `... cannot restrict the meaning of point ...' No change indicated.
pt 13, line 16 (ts 10): ts has no comma after applications.
pt 13, lines 20-22 (ts 10): ts has `Moreover, lest some mathematician suppose that to guard against possible misinterpretations, let us say that by arithmetic is meant a subject studied in grade school and that by elementary algebra is meant a subject studied in high school.' No indication of change.
pt 13, line -9 (ts 10): no comma after defined in ts
pt 13, line -7 (ts 10): ts has `Then, there is an infinite series of successive definitions for the infinite series of positive integers, namely, two is one more than one, three is one more than two, four is one more than three, etc., etc., or alternatively, the second is the Then, there is ...'
pt 14, lines 5-6 (ts 10): ts had `... the one important element in the above definition is ...' Changed by hand in ts.
pt 14, line -15 (ts 11): ts has no commas around therefore
pt 15, line 4 (ts 11): ts has comma after division
pt 15, line 17 (ts 15): ts has comma after multiplication
pt 15, fn (ts 12): ts has this note more or less run into the text
pt 15, first paragraphs (ts 12): the sentences `Distinguish ...' and `Let ...' begin separate paragraphs in ts
pt 16, line 15 (ts 12): no comma after rules in ts
pt 16, line -18 (ts 12): ts has `... the circle consists of points and lines neither of which can be imagined.'
pt 16, line -12 (ts 12): ts has `... subtracting, dividing numbers in accord ...'
pt 16, line -2 (ts 12): ts has `What are the new rules? What did algebra greet you with in high school? There were rules of signs. There were rules for fractions. There were rules for equations. These
What are the new rules? ...
pt 16, line -2 (ts 13): ts has `In high school the rules ...'
pt 17, line 2 (ts 13): ts has comma after division
pt 17, line 10 (ts 13): ts has `... it has to do with the development of mathematics gradual development ...'
pt 18, line 3 (ts 13): ts has `... the symbolism is apt inasmuch as its patterns and the automatic habits of using it is apt inasmuch as ...'
pt 18, line 12 (ts 14): ts has colon after technique
pt 18, line 16 (ts 14): ts has `... that the rest is just routine of the problem is just routine.'
pt 18, line -15 (ts 14): ts has `... this element of change. Descartes, it is said, invented analytic geometry, which proceeds by symbols and equations, to avoid the mere chance that governs the discovery of the "construction" of change. Here, of course, ...'
pt 18, line -11 (ts 14): the paragraph `In the fourth place ...' is run into the preceding in ts.
pt 18, line -8 (ts 14): ts has comma after Greek
pt 19, line 3 (ts 14): the paragraph `In the fifth place ...' is run into the preceding in ts.
pt 19, sections 4 and 5: at this point manuscript A has replaced an earlier version with a carbon of what appears also in manuscript B. For notes on the earlier version, see above A 384. Variations in the replacement pages are given here.
pt 20, line -13 (ts 61): ts has `... to indulge in an apostolate of the obvious.' No change is indicated.
pt 20, line -10 (ts 61): ts has comma after terms
pt 21, line -11 (ts 61): ts has `so that the rational and irrational the algebraic fractions frm zero to unity must be a negligible portion of the real numbers in that interval.' The word `real' is typed above the normal line. There is no indication either here or in manuscript B that it should be removed; but it does not appear in pt.
pt 23, line -21 (ts 65): ts has comma after word
pt 25, line 3 (ts 67): ts has `infra-categorial'
pt 25, line 6 (ts 67): ts has no comma after field
pt 25, sentence re: electromagnetic field (ts 67): ts has commas rather than semicolons separating the independent clauses; thus: `... transformations, Fitzgerald ... motion, Einstein ... laws, finally Minkowski ...'
pt 25, line 25, line 9 (ts 67): ts has `... found a more no less general explanation ...' Change made by hand
pt 26, line -6 (ts 69): ts has no comma after fact
pt 27, line 6 (ts 70): ts has ... differ?
pt 27, line -10 (ts 71): This entire paragraph is an original copy, not a carbon. The carbon of the beginning of the next paragraph is pasted on to the bottom of the page. The carbon of the paragraph `There is ...' appears in manuscript B, and represents the version that appears in pt. The changes are minimal. Manuscript A reads:
But There is a further aspect to the matter. Because particular places and particular times possess no immanent intelligibility of their own, they cannot involve any modification of the intelligibility of anything else. It is not mere difference in place but something different at in the places that gives rise to different observations or different experimental results in different places. Similarly, it is not mere difference in time but something different at that time that gives rise to different observations or different experimental results at different times. Moreover, were that not so, every place and every time would have its own physics, its own chemistry, its own biology; and as a science cannot be worked out instaneaneously at a single place, there would be no physics, no chemistry, and no biology. Conversely, because particular places and particular times pertain to the empirical residue, there exists the powerful technique of scientific collaboration; scientists of every place and every time can pool their results in a common fund and there is no discrimination against any result merely because of the place or merely because of the time of its origin.
pt 28, line 10 (ts 71): ts has comma after isotopes
pt 28, line -5 (ts 72): ts has `... when any set of data have been explained ...'
pt 30, line -9 (ts 74b): ts has comma after insights
pt 30, line -6 (ts 74b): ts has no comma after insights
pt 30, line -1: ditto
pt 31, lin 6 (ts 74b): ts has no comma after range
pt 31, line -13 (ts 74c): ts has comma after is