Insight Chapter 7
Archival Number: A406
Author: Lonergan, B.
pt 207, l. 9 (ts 52): ts had a sentence, now crossed out, between `a change in its object.' and `Common sense is practical.' It reads: `One has only to compare a primitive culture with an urban civilization to grasp the extent to which man makes his own environment.'
pt 207, ll. 10-11 (ts 52): ts: `not for the sake of the alleged pleasure ...' changed in B
pt 207, l. - 19 (ts 52): ts had `empirical' for `pure'. Change made by hand.
pt 207, l. - 8 (ts 53): ts has `but also practical.'
pt 208, l. 8 (ts 53): ts has `those ideas.'
pt 208, l. 10 (ts 53) ts has `old only to suggest'
pt 210, l. - 9 (ts 57): ts has `insight, communication, persuasion, agreement, decision.'
pt 211, end of section 2 (ts 59): ts originally had `... puzzle. For what human society is static? And how is there to be developed a calculus that will enable one to measure the precise effect of a new practical idea?' And section 3 originally began: `Initially and spontaneously, the good is identified with the object of desire, and evil with the object of fear. But human desires and fears, as we have seen, have only a partial resemblance to animal conation and emotion.'
pt 213, l. 10 (ts 61): ts has `in intersubjectivity'
pt 213, l. 17 (ts 61): ts had the start of a further sentence at end of this paragraph, now crossed out: `In primitive society it is possible to suppose that the good is simply the object of desire; but in civil community there has to be acknowledged a distinct, intelligible good of order'
pt 214, l. 3 (ts 62): This paragraph originally began: `Confronted with this order, the individual finds himself a cog in a bewildering set of notched wheels. For the order is objective and impersonal. It derives its motive power from individual desires and fears; it harnesses them to the performance of tasks whose fruits they do not desire and will not receive; it metes out rewards not for good intentions'
pt 214, l. 13 (ts 63): verbs in this sentence originally in past tense; handwritten in margin is `Tense?'
pt 214, l. 16 (ts 63): ts has `and so, in any given present, all together present ...'
pt 215, l. 11 (ts 64): ts had `atomistic' for `monadic'--changed by hand
pt 215, l. 13 (ts 65): ts: `there is operative ...'
pt 215, l. - 7 (ts 65): This paragraph originally started `There is, then, a radical tension of community and its poles are inter-subjective spontaneity and intelligently devised social order. It is a true tension for its opposite poles are indissolubly united. Intelligence cannot but provide general solutions and general rules. Only the individual can feel. Yet individual feelings are subsumed under the general rules and, at the same time, the individual with the feelings is committed to the invention and implementation of general directives.'
pt 216, l. - 17 (ts 67): ts has `... inflexible generalizations that characterize logic, mathematics, and science. Like a majestic river, it rolls along in apparent independence of the myriad springs and rivulets that constantly renew its content and massive power. Only the blind and destructive blows, inevitable in even a partial break-down of social order, characterize ...'
pt 217, l. 14 (ts 68): ts has, after first paragraph, the following, crossed out:
`In the interests of precision I had best define what I shall mean by the term.
`Since the foregoing notion admits further differentiation from various scientific and philosophic view-points'
pt 217, l. -17 (ts 68): ts has `provided'
pt 218, l. 3 (ts 71): ts has `...ends of survival individual and specific survival.'
pt 218, l. 10 (ts 71): ts has `satisfactions.'
pt 218, l. 14 (ts 70): ts: `in level of activity'
pt 220, l. 18 (ts 73): ts has `problem'
pt 220, l. - 9 (ts 73): no c. after sciences
pt 222, par. Basically (ts 76): ts has no commas after `aspect' (three times)
pt 222, l. -1 (ts 77): ts has `operation'
pt 223, l. 13 (ts 78): ts has `Accordingly, the practical common sense of a community may be a single whole, but its parts ...'
pt 223, l. - 10 (ts 78): ts has `and fresh insights in a perpetual circle. The existence of group bias implies that only some selection of the fresh insights demanded by the situation necessitates a distinction between the fresh insights that will become operative and those that will be disregarded. insights. At each turn ...'
pt 224, l. 15 (ts 79): ts has Excess provokes its opposite. What has been Moreover, the course of development ...'
pt 225, l. 5 (ts 80): ts has `and the sentiments of the unsuccessful can be the truculent tool of a demagogue's aspirations for power. of the unsuccessful ...'
py 225, l. - 14 (ts 81): ts has `a full development'
p 225, l. -1 (ts 82): ts has comma after difficulty; and `apparently' is added by hand
pt 226, l. 2 (ts 82): ts has `concrete and particular.'
pt 226, l. 3 (ts 82): ts has `It easily is led ...'
pt 226, l. 5 (ts 82): ts has `useless or of a doubtful validity. Every specialist runs the risk of exaggerating the importance of his own field and of failing to appreciate the complementary significance of other fields. The development of common sense is a specialization of human intellectual development but, far less than other specialists, are men of common sense inclined to admit or even to suppose the inadequacy of their outlook. They will admit the bias of the egoist, the group, the nation. But they love to take refuge in the common consent of mankind, as though error were primarily a product of selfishness, as though common sense were not human or as though it were not human to err. doubtfully valid.'
pt 226, l. - 9 (ts 83): the paragraph `Accordingly' originally began: `It follows that larger ideas with long-term implications tend to be disregarded by both reactionaries and revolutionaries, by progressives and by liberals'
pt 227, l. 19 (ts 85): ts has `circumstance'
pt 227, l. - 2 (ts 85): ts had `changing' for `directing'; changed by hand
pt 229, l. 11 (ts 87): ts: `consists in the realization ...'
pt 229, l. - 4: ts: `easily can' (`easily' added by hand)
pt 230, l. 10 (ts 89): ts has `There is the minor surrender on the level of common sense. It has to deal with the concrete and the practical. Men of culture, represwentatives of religion, spokesmen for philosophy can provide it with a profoundly satisfying escape from the grim realities of daily life minor surrender ...'
pt 230, l. - 2 (ts 90): ts has `intelligence rob it of a capacity for criticism make it radically ...'
pt 231, l. -6 (ts 92): ts has `called forth the totalitarian, ready to acknowledge the reality of technology, of the economy, of the polity, ready to accept the balance of pressures that is their minimum intelligibility, ready to exploit the feverish energy that can be released by breaking down the moral conscience and playing on the hidden affects of civilized man, ready to grant the validity of myth and merely of myth to whatever cultural, religious, or philosophic pretences are required to obtain man's total subordination to the economic development, the military equipment, and the political dominance of the all-inclusive state, ready to employ every technique of indoctrination, every the totalitarian who ...'
pt 232, l. -1 (ts 94): ts has `... for the individual or group interests that it understands. But this centrifugal tendency is incapable of meeting problems that exist on a world scale, and common sense This centrifugal tendency will be augmented by the prepossessions and prejudices, resentments and hatreds, that have been accumulating through the shorter oscillations of group bias and the successive lower viewpoints of general bias. The objective social surd will be matched by the disunity of minds all warped but each in its own way. The stage will be set for the great crises that end in complete disintegration and decay. Finally, when former civilizations came to nought, there were outlanders to preserve interests that it understands. ...
pt 234, end of 8.3 (ts 96): Originally a new paragraph in this same section started: `At this late date there is no need to argue that the liberal notion of automatic progress is illusory.'
pt 234, l. - 5 (ts 97): ts has: `their only satisfactory expression is their implementation, and the most efficacious manner of making certain that they never will be used is to require that they be examined and evaluated by officials and bureaucrats whose main interest is not to make mistakes and who lack the familiarity with the relevant concrete implementation, their only ...'
pt 235, l. 7 (ts 97): paragraph `However' is run into preceding paragraph in ts
pt 235, l. 8 (ts 97): ts has `its principle is twofold bias.'
pt 235, l. 14 (ts 98): ts has `... automatic progress. To fail to distinguish between the two principles of decline was the far more confusing error of Marx The far more confusing error ...'
pt 235, l. - 19 (ts 98): ts has: `totalitarianism. The needed higher viewpoint must above all, The basic service ...'
pt 235, l. - 2 (ts 98): ts has: `data; but amont valid excuses there can be enumerated neither objectivity nor empiricism, and the business of the scientist is not to make excuses about difficulties but to overcome them. but the business ...'
pt 236, l. 13 (ts 99): ts has `emerges' for `arises'
pt 236, l. -2 (ts 100): ts has `heart. Now it was noted above that in the longer cycle of major decline, the old culture is forced to retreat into an ivory tower, and there is devised a succession of new cultures each of which in turn is superseded by a still newer culture that is more in harmony with the really up-to-date man. cultures in the pursuit of adjustment to the realities of life. Unfortunately the latest arrivals are disconcerting. The synthetic proletarian culture, provided by Mr. Stalin's assistants
Now if men ...'
pt 237, l. 13 (ts 101): ts has `transformations. Operative in these profound changes of man's outlook, there are to be discerned not only the legitimate demands of intelligent progress but also the no less forceful requirements of bias and of decline. For the uncritical the good and valuable can have no other meaning than the new Each change is disputed by an old guard. Each fights its decisive battle to become eventually the accepted view of all Opinions ...'
pt 237, l. -6 (ts 101): ts has `counter-weighted' for `counterbalanced'
pt 237 ff. ts capitalizes Cosmopolis
pt 237, end of first paragraph (ts 103): ts has `... ignored. But what is Cosmopolis? At least, it is the trade union of dramatic actors. They all want technology and capital formation, economy and polity. But they want them not as masters but as servants. They want stage and settings, lighting and costumes. But so far from being totalitarian in their practicality, their principal demand is for a play.
A man's enemies are those of his own household. If the ptoletarian culture, devised for the Russians by Mr. Stalin's assitants, is a negation of culture,
pt 238, l. -13 (ts 104): ts has `of men. Such an agreement could be reached, though its ends were mistaken and though the means it envisaged In other words, ...'
pt 239, l. 5 (ts 104): ts has `that Cosmopolis has to correct. Moreover, at the root of the general bias that generates major decline there is the conviction that ideas, unless backed by power or force, will be inoperative. Cosmopolis has to stand on the opposite premise. Unless it does so, it will not succeed in making has to correct...'
pt 240, l. 4 (ts 106): ts has `saddle. What does concern Cosmopolis is the spat of lying, of creating myths, However, while shifts of power in themselves are incidental, they commonly are accompanied by the creation of myths, by the formation of strange alliances, other more dangerous However, while ...'
pt 240, l. 7 (ts 106): ts has `The old regime is painted as a melodramatic villain; depicted as monstrous; ...'
pt 241, l. 6 (ts 108): ts has `... of possible criticism.
`What, then, is Cosmopolis? It is a dimension of consciousness, a grasp of historical origins and a recognition of historical responsibilities
Perhaps enough ...'
pt 241, l. -3 (ts 109): ts has `The general bias of common sense is no exception. Nor does one have to go far afield to find concrete proof. It is not unbiased intelligence that yields a welter of conflicting opinions, and so Cosmopolis will be no Babel. It is not a culture but a compromise that is obtained by finding the highest common factor of the aggregate of cultures, and it is not by a compromise that the longer cycle of decline will be reversed. Where is the Western world to obtain agreement on basic issues? It will need a critical human science. To be common sense is no exception...'
pt 241, l. 8 (ts 110): ts has `... conflicting opinions. Cosmopolis is not Babel, yet how can we break from Babel? This is the problem.' No change is indicated in text. The sentence `Cosmopolis ...' is simply omitted in ms B.
pt 242, sec. 9 (ts 111): ts begins: `It is time to end this study of common sense. In a first section there was worked out the parallel between common sense and empirical science: both are developments of intelligence. In the second and third sections attention ...'
pt 243, l. 16 (ts 112): ts: `... of the average man, as would Newman, the problem of his affects, as would Freud, and the dialectic of his history, as would a higher synthesis of liberal and Marxist thought.'